The quality and collection frequency of household data available in many of these countries also severely constrain the effectiveness poverty intervention efforts e. With legitimate claims to land, women gain bargaining power, which can be applied to their lives outside of and within the household.
Safety nets programmes put in place in the name of the poor have also disproportionately benefited the nonpoor. The challenge is particularly daunting for Indochina including China and South Asian countries where overall population growth rates remain high, fiscal resources needed to finance urban and rural infrastructure and public support programmes such as food subsidy systems are acutely limited, institutional capacity to respond to the demands of urbanization is weak, and, with varying degrees, the natural resource base is degraded.
Main article: Welfare's effect on poverty Aid in its simplest form is a basic income granta form of social security periodically providing citizens with money. China has, for example, demonstrated its remarkable capability to respond to challenges of rising food demands despite severe resource constraints.
For the poor, food staples usually represent the largest component in total household expenditure; these are generally tradeable goods hence their prices are expected to rise with devaluation.
In these countries the poor South where uneducated labour is abundant and growth in labour with basic skills is rising, the wage disparity between the high-skill and the low-skill labour has diminished.